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托福听力如何快速提高学会做文本分析和话题总结

2020-12-08 | 编辑:y | 分享到
摘要:托福听力如何快速提高学会做文本分析和话题总结

  托福听力如何快速提高学会做文本分析和话题总结,听力啊听力~真是让人抓狂~??

  有的同学80%备考时间都砸在了听力上,考试时也觉得自己都听懂了,结果….听力分数和裸考成绩一样,不堪入目!??

  有的同学本来口语和写作能力还可以,可是….听力听不懂,综合口语和综合写作分数拉低了整科成绩。??

  还有些同学干脆每次听听力,全程蒙蔽?!!单词听不懂,不知道要听什么,做题一塌糊涂。??

  说到底,还是听力学习出了问题。要知道,托福不是一个喜欢难为你的考试,不存在听力很好,但是因为题型没见过最后没考好的情况。如果你的能力接近了,即使有没有见过的托福题型,最终成绩也不会跟实际成绩有很大悬殊。

  实际上,有的同学听力分数不高是自己的阅读能力也有问题。如果你读都没读不懂,做听力只会放大你的问题。所以,建议托福烤鸭们学听力也要做文本分析。

  或许你觉得先精读原文再做精听,会记住原文才听,会不会没什么用?小编在听力能力接近的同学身上做过对比。事实上,看完文本再做精听的同学,比硬着头皮一句句精听的同学,投入时间短且进步更大。

  所以说,想要听力能力进步大一点,听力文本分析就要立刻、马上、现在做起来!!!下面,解释下怎么去做文本分析和话题总结。

  Lecture套路

  做了TPO题目多了,你就能总结出听力共性。有了这些总结,你在听新文章时会有特殊魔力,就算新题也能听出似曾相识的感觉,你能轻松听出重点,保持情绪稳定,不会被听不懂的句子造成很大干扰。

  比如现象解释型文章里,典型的层次结构是:

  Step1: 引出要讨论的话题或现象(开头1min内对应目的主旨)

  Step2: 引出理论或详细展开理论相关2-3个细节 (按顺序出细节题概率大)

  Step3: 对理论进行总结或评价(30s内,主要评价内容的信号词)

  Step4: 若第一个理论被驳斥,则展开第二个理论并评价(该部分依据文章而变化)

  每个分层结构都会对应具体信号词(not, so, ok, well, today, but...), 在分层延伸话题中,会穿插听力十大考点(比如,主旨考点、因果考点、并列考点、转折考点、强调考点等等)。

  你会发现原文行文逻辑是与出题逻辑密切联系的,就好比是couple组合:哪里出现了逻辑内容,哪里就有可能出题。

  Lecture总共有六道题,按照原文行文顺序,基本上是一道题对应一个听力分层。简单来说,听力文章=主旨段+主体段A/B/C/D+结尾段。而出题设置是:目的主旨题+4道其他题型(细节题居多)+态度题/重听题/推断题。

托福听力如何快速提高学会做文本分析和话题总结

  听力文本分析

  TPO43.2  Why Leaves Change Color

  「开头段」引出lecture要讨论的话题

Professor: It's autumn and as you know in most parts of the United States, the leaves on the trees are changing color from green to yellow, orange and lots of other colors. So this will be a great time to talk about how and why some of these leaves turn one color in particular and that's bright red.(1??目的主旨题)

  「主体段1」关于树叶变绿的传统理论解释:

  Well, before we discuss why leaves turn red, first, let's, um, look, I know this is very old material, but just to play it safe, let's first go overwhy leaves are usually green.(2??转折考点-推断题)

  It’s chlorophyll, right?

Leaves get their green color from chlorophyll, the chemical that's responsible for photosynthesis. The chlorophyll in the leaves collects energy from the Sun in the form of sunlight and it converts this energy into sugar which is food for the plant. It's chlorophyll that makes leaves green most of the time.

  Now, the classic explanation for why leaves change color is this.

In autumn, the leaves start preparing for the winter and stop synthesizing new chlorophyll. Since chlorophyll is sensitive to sunlight and to cold temperatures both of which you get in autumn. The existing chlorophyll in the leaves breaks down and since it’s not been replaced by the new chlorophyll, the green color of the leaves gradually fades away. As this happens, the other pigments present in the leaf become visible. According to the classic theory, this is true for the red pigment as well. It was there in the leaf all along but it was hidden by the green chlorophyll.

  「主体段2」传统理论的评价:只适用于叶子变黄或橙的情况,并不适用于变红的这种现象。

  OK, so that's the classic explanation and it's partially right.

  Why do I say partially?

  Well, it's probably true for pigments like yellow or orange, but it doesn't seem to hold for the red pigment.(3??转折考点-细节题)

  「主体段3」解释叶子变红之前,先讨论anthocyanin意外增多现象。

  Let's back up a bit. Just what produces this red color in leaves? It's a red pigment called anthocyanin.

Here is where the classic explanation doesn't seem to apply to red. What’s interesting is that during the summer there was very little if any anthocyanin in the leaves. But in the weeks before a tree is about to drop its leaves, the production of anthocyanins increases significantly. In other words, unlike those other pigments, anthocyanins are not just unmasked by the breakdown of chlorophyll in autumn. They are actually created at this time.

  So that raises a question, why would a tree produce more anthocyanin just before dropping its leaves? Why does the tree spend so much of its resources doing this just before the leaves fall off? On the surface, that doesn’t make sense it’d be likes spending money to...I don't know...to have your old car repainted when you know the car's not going to last more than a couple of months. All this extra anthocyanin in the autumn seems like a waste. (举例考点-组织结构题)

  But remember nature is very economical with its resources. So that means anthocyanin must be serving some function that's important for the tree.

  「主体段4」指出anthocyanin意外增多的原因,从而解释叶子为什么变红。

  Today, there are some theories about what that function might be. One of them involves predatory insects; another involves fungi. You know, the more I read about these theories and the related research, it always created more questions for me than answers. So I was really glad to learn about a totally different theory, a new one. It seems to come with research and data that give a full explanation. So here it is.(5??因果考点-态度题) Remember I said the chlorophyll breaks down? Well, in autumn, a whole lot of other chemical constituents of the leaf break down as well. I don't mean they are totally destroyed cause actually they break down into other different chemicals that the tree can reabsorb from the leaves and reuse later.

  Now, this reabsorption process is very important for the tree and here is the key. It's sensitive to light, meaning that too much exposure to sunlight can interfere with this process.

  So where does anthocyanin fit in here?

  Well, anthocyanin is more stable than chlorophyll. It's not harmed as easily by the Sun or the cold. So it's still working long after the chlorophyll breaks down.

  Butwhat does it do?The theory is that anthocyanin protects the reabsorption process from the sunlight. For example, if you look closely at a red leaf on a tree, you'll notice that most of the red pigment is on the upper side of the leaf, the side facing the sun. This new theory suggests that what the anthocyanin is doing there on top is shielding the rest of the leaf from the sunlight, and more importantly, allowing those important chemicals to be reabsorbed by the tree. (6??提问+转折考点-细节题)


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